In this image, you will find Paranasal sinuses, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Esophagus, Entrance to the eustachian tube, Nasal cavity soft palate, Hard palate, Oral cavity, Tongue epiglottis, Larynx, Trachea in it. We think this is the most useful anatomy picture that you need. You can click the image to magnify if you cannot see clearly. This image added by admin. We hope you can get the exact information you are looking for. Please do not forget to share this page and follow our social media to help further develop our website.
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Human Brain Anatomy Gross View. Brain Layers Detail. Internal Carotid Artery Anatomical Structure. Pons Anatomical Structure. Pons Anatomical Structure Lateral View.
Skull Base Anatomical Structure. Common Arteries In Brain Diagram.In this section, you will examine the anatomy and functions of the three main organs of the upper alimentary canal—the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus—as well as three associated accessory organs—the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth. The cheeks, tongue, and palate frame the mouth, which is also called the oral cavity or buccal cavity.
The structures of the mouth are illustrated in. Their outer covering is skin, which transitions to a mucous membrane in the mouth proper. The lips cover the orbicularis oris muscle, which regulates what comes in and goes out of the mouth. The labial frenulum is a midline fold of mucous membrane that attaches the inner surface of each lip to the gum. While their outer covering is skin, their inner covering is mucous membrane. This membrane is made up of non-keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium.
Between the skin and mucous membranes are connective tissue and buccinator muscles. The next time you eat some food, notice how the buccinator muscles in your cheeks and the orbicularis oris muscle in your lips contract, helping you keep the food from falling out of your mouth.
Additionally, notice how these muscles work when you are speaking. The pocket-like part of the mouth that is framed on the inside by the gums and teeth, and on the outside by the cheeks and lips is called the oral vestibule. The main open area of the mouth, or oral cavity proper, runs from the gums and teeth to the fauces.
When you are chewing, you do not find it difficult to breathe simultaneously. The next time you have food in your mouth, notice how the arched shape of the roof of your mouth allows you to handle both digestion and respiration at the same time. This arch is called the palate.
The anterior region of the palate serves as a wall or septum between the oral and nasal cavities as well as a rigid shelf against which the tongue can push food.
It is created by the maxillary and palatine bones of the skull and, given its bony structure, is known as the hard palate. This part of the palate, known as the soft palateis composed mainly of skeletal muscle.
You can therefore manipulate, subconsciously, the soft palate—for instance, to yawn, swallow, or sing. A fleshy bead of tissue called the uvula drops down from the center of the posterior edge of the soft palate.
Although some have suggested that the uvula is a vestigial organ, it serves an important purpose. When you swallow, the soft palate and uvula move upward, helping to keep foods and liquid from entering the nasal cavity. Unfortunately, it can also contribute to the sound produced by snoring.These processes are facilitated by working together of well developed respiratory organs and the circulatory system.
The respiratary passage is divided into two cham-bers by a median partition. The nasal passage opens to the outside through external nostrils.
Pharynx Histology – Epithelial Lining of the Pharynx
It opens inside by internal nostrils at the pharynx. The uvula is a soft outgrowth hanging in between the posterior part of the oral cavity and the pharynx. It prevents the entry of food into the nasal cavity. The wall of the nasopharynx is lined by ciliated columnar epithilium.
The middle ear opens into the nasopharynx through two auditory tubes. This arrangement is meant for equalizing the air pressure between the atmosphere and the middle ear. An enlargement of the tonsil can interfere with breathing. The oral cavity opens into the oropharynx. Near the opening of the oral cavity 2 sets of palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils are present. The laryngopharynx extends in between the epiglottis and the oesophagus. The thyroid cartilage is the largest.
The cricoid cartilage forms the base of the larynx.Normal Respiration and Swallow
The other cartilages are placed above the cricoid. It projects as a free flap over the opening of the larynx. It prevents food particles from saentering into the tracheal tube. The vocal cords and the openings between them are called the glottis.
The vocal cords are involved with sound production. The air moving past the vocal cords make them to vibrate. Louder sounds are made by increasing the ampli-tude of vibrations.
Frequency of the vibrations can be altered by changing the length of the vibrating segments of the vocal cords. The length is altered by muscles attached to the cartilage. Males usually have longer vocal cords than females. The sound made by the vocal cords can be altered by the tongue, lips and teeth to form words. The inner wall of the trachea is lined by mucous membrane. It con-sists of ciliated columnar epithelium. The cilia of this epithelium help to propel mucus and foreign particles towards the larynx.
The length of the trachea is cm.The pharynxor throat, is the passageway leading from the mouth and nose to the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx permits the passage of swallowed solids and liquids into the esophagus, or gullet, and conducts air to and from the trachea, or windpipe, during respiration.
The pharynx also connects on either side with the cavity of the middle ear by way of the Eustachian tube and provides for equalization of air pressure on the eardrum membranewhich separates the cavity of the middle ear from the external ear canal. The pharynx has roughly the form of a flattened funnel. It is attached to the surrounding structures but is loose enough to permit gliding of the pharyngeal wall against them in the movements of swallowing.
The principal muscles of the pharynx, involved in the mechanics of swallowing, are the three pharyngeal constrictors, which overlap each other slightly and form the primary musculature of the side and rear pharyngeal walls.
There are three main divisions of the pharynx: the oral pharynxthe nasal pharynx, and the laryngeal pharynx. The latter two are airways, whereas the oral pharynx is shared by both the respiratory and digestive tracts.
On either side of the opening between the mouth cavity and the oral pharynx is a palatine tonsilso called because of its proximity to the palate.Lg washer wash plate comes off
Each palatine tonsil is located between two vertical folds of mucous membrane called the glossopalatine arches. The nasal pharynx, above, is separated from the oral pharynx by the soft palate.
Another pair of tonsils are located on the roof of the nasal pharynx. When the pharyngeal tonsils become grossly swollen which occurs often during childhood they occlude the airway. The laryngeal pharynx and the lower part of the oral pharynx are hidden by the root of the tongue.
The first stage of deglutition, or swallowing, consists of passage of the bolus into the pharynx and is initiated voluntarily. The front part of the tongue is retracted and depressed, mastication ceases, respiration is inhibitedand the back portion of the tongue is elevated and retracted against the hard palate.
This action, produced by the strong muscles of the tongue, forces the bolus from the mouth into the pharynx. Entry of the bolus into the nasal pharynx is prevented by the elevation of the soft palate against the posterior pharyngeal wall. As the bolus is forced into the pharynx, the larynx moves upward and forward under the base of the tongue. The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles contract, initiating a rapid pharyngeal peristaltic, or squeezing, contraction that moves down the pharynx, propelling the bolus in front of it.
The walls and structures of the lower pharynx are elevated to engulf the oncoming mass of food.
The epiglottis, a lidlike covering that protects the entrance to the larynx, diverts the bolus to the pharynx.From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data.
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File:Illu01 head neck. File:Illu pharynx.The word throat is used for the parts of the neck anterior to the vertebral column, especially the pharynx and the larynx.
The pharynx is the part of the digestive system situated posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and posterior to the larynx. It is therefore divisible into nasal, oral, and laryngeal parts: the 1 nasopharynx, 2 oropharynx, and 3 laryngopharynx. The pharynx extends from the base of the skull down to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage around the C6 vertebral levelwhere it becomes continuous with the esophagus. Its superior aspect is related to the sphenoid and occipital bones and the posterior aspect to the prevertebral fascia and muscles as well as the upper six cervical vertebrae.
The pharynx figs. The pharynx is the common channel for deglutition swallowing and respiration, and the food and air pathways cross each other in the pharynx.
In the anesthetized patient, the passage of air through the pharynx is facilitated by extension of the neck. The nasopharynx, at least in its anterior part, may be regarded as the posterior portion of the nasal cavity, with which it has a common function as part of the respiratory system. The nasopharynx communicates with the oropharynx through the pharyngeal isthmus, which is bounded by the soft palate, the palatopharyngeal arches, and the posterior wall of the pharynx.
The isthmus is closed by muscular action during swallowing. The choanae are the junction between nasopharynx and the nasal cavity proper. A mass of lymphoid tissue, the naso pharyngeal tonsil is embedded in the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlarged naso pharyngeal tonsils are termed "adenoids" and may cause respiratory obstruction.
Higher up, a minute pharyngeal hypophysis resembling the adenohypophysis may be found see fig. Each lateral wall of the nasopharynx has the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube, located about 1 to 1. The auditory tube can be catheterized through a nostril. The opening is limited on the superior side by a tubal elevation tubal torusfrom which mucosal folds descend to the palate and side wall of the pharynx.Metacognition scale pdf
The part of the pharyngeal cavity posterior to the tubal elevation is termed the pharyngeal recess. Nearby lymphoid tissue is referred to as the tubal tonsil.Published on October 1st by admin under Upper Respiratory Tract. Pharynx is the inches long semicircular fibromuscular tube, commonly referred to as the throat  that connects the nasal cavity to the larynxand the oral cavity to the esophagus [2, 3].
Located just below the nasal and oral cavities and before the larynx and esophagus, the pharynx starts at the human skull base, extending to the lower end of the cricoid cartilage . It is the uppermost section, located between the skull base and the soft palate . The adenoids or pharyngeal tonsils are located on its posterior wall . The part after the nasopharynxthe oropharynx is the region behind the base of the tongue, between the soft palate and the epiglottis .
Also known as the hypopharynx, it is the last section of the pharynx, located between the epiglottis and the cricoid cartilage, continuing into the larynx and esophagus . These are positioned as incomplete muscular circles, all innervated by the nervus vagus vagus nerve . There are three circular muscles [8, 9] :.
Pharynx | Definition, Location, Parts & Functions
The vagus nerve innervates the palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus, while the glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus . Arterial Supply: Through external carotid artery branches, namely the ascending pharyngeal artery, lingual artery, facial artery and maxillary artery. Venous Drainage: Performed by the venous pharyngeal plexus that drains into the IJV internal jugular vein.
Here, its primary purpose is to let inhaled air pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx, windpipe and then the lungs . The passage connecting the oral and nasal pharynges, called isthmus, allows humans to breathe both through the nose and mouth . The epiglottis, located at the end of the oropharynx keeps the passage to the esophagus covered, so the air does not enter into the digestive system.
The Eustachian tubes act as a connection between the pharynx and middle ear, helping in equalizing the pressure of air on the eardrum . The consecutive contractions of the circular muscles of the pharynx help the ingested foods to pass through the lumen into the esophagus . The longitudinal muscles contribute to widening the pharynx, elevating the larynx during the process of swallowing .
The pharynx works with the other speech organs and muscles to produce initial sounds, while it also plays the role of a resonating organ. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
The Respiratory System Deus mbosol says:.
Vagus Nerve Overview
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